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Water proofing
Q: What are the materials and application methods of water proofing for both flat roofs with no use and with pavement (to be used) presented by KYK.

A: Megaİzo, a polymer modified rubber bitumen-based, solvent-free waterproofing material that forms a seamless, flexible membrane when dried, used in the application of water proofing for flat roofs. The material is also suitable for underground use and provides excellent adhesion on concrete surfaces. MegaFilm is the other additional material for water resilience.

Q: What are the main factors to be control prior to application of water proofing materials? Explain each factor with reasons.

A: The factor that should be considered before the application of water proofing are; elevation, surface, square meters and purpose of use. The factor elevation is mainly on about enough number of water outlets for water discharge and no ponding. The factor surface is mainly on the features of the surface that the resilience will be applied, since it has to be a strong, dust-free and solid one. Along the features, humidity is similarly important, measurements of it should be done before the application and product selection. Square meters is another factor which is crucially important in the earlier process of water resilience. The materials differ according to different square meter values as well. For instance, while for an area which is 0 to 100 m2, the suggested materials are cement, acrylic and polyurethane, for an area above 600 m2 only the material polyurethane is suggested. Finally, purpose of use the factor which again, important the earlier process. The area might be load bearing -vehicle load- or a green area, which provides differs in needs.

Q: What are the differences of water proofing techniques done on the screed and over the screed? What type of materials can be used? How can they be applied? Explain the differences of these materials?

A: Below screed application is appropriate where vast substrate movement or construction joints are present, requiring an unbonded sheet membrane such as PVC or torched bitumen. Membrane application below the screed is common. Above screed membrane application is appropriate where a bonded membrane is applied onto a bonded screed with mandated bond breakers and release zones, maximizing control of falls and movement adjustment of the membrane. However, this is not appropriate where a solvent based polyurethane membrane is applied, not being compatible with tiles, marbles, and other finishes.

Q: What are the type of liquid and membrane materials used for water proofing purposes? In what cases membrane materials should be used?

A: Bituminous waterproofing works great for many applications, this type of waterproofing is great for commercial and residential buildings. To create this type of waterproofing, bitumen will be combined with a mixture substance, which consist of asphalt or coal-tar. The mixed substance is made up of organic liquids which will be very sticky. On top of that, they are viscous and waterproof enduring. PVC membrane is a common roofing material that is made from polyvinylchloride, it is mainly used to waterproof roofs. PVC membrane is also vapor permeable and this will prove to be a big benefit. This type of waterproofing material is including a reinforcing base, which usually made of glass fiber or polyester mesh.

Q: What type of details are important during the application of water proofing materials especially for the detail of capping over the parapet wall, around the chimney and skirting.

A: Parapet Wall: Disclosed is a system for waterproofing interior surfaces of parapet walls settled on a roof, where the parapet walls include an interior surface counter flashing and a surface cap. The system contains at least one waterproofing membrane settled to allow moisture to escape from a space between the at least one waterproofing membrane and the interior surfaces of the parapet walls, where the at least one waterproofing membrane is likely to extend at least a portion of a detachment along the interior surfaces from the surface cap to the roof from which the parapet walls extend. The system also contains a flap valve defined by the at least one waterproofing membrane, the flap valve being positioned between the surface cap and the roof.

Around the chimney: Utilizing a flood coat will cause the surface to become utterly saturated and allow as much water resistant to soak in as possible. Keeping a soft bristle brush handy; agitating the wet surface with this brush will help ensure even distribution and break the surface tension to allow even more of the water repellent to absorb. The greater the absorption, the longer the waterproofing job will last.

Skirting: Skirtings for applications, which require resistance to moisture, these combine the benefits of waterproof plastic carriers with the advantage of matching the finish of the decor. Waterproof PUR glue is used to stick down decor papers, printed digitally or by the diaglyph printing procedure.

Q: What are the differences between three different water proofing applications of terraces with no use? (Draw the detailed section to explain your answers both in words and sketches.

Thermal Insulation
Q: What are the advantageous of thermal insulation materials? Explain your answer both ecologically and economically?

A: Physical advantage provided in the building is to delay the condensation point where walls remain dry and there is not much need to overheat the internal surface. The economical advantage is that, since the energy is kept within the walls and the material, less energy use is required from the users. The less use of energy is both economically and ecologically advantegous.

Q: What are the tools, equipment and materials to be used during the application of thermal insulation materials proposed by KYK?


Q: What type of thermal insulation materials do KYK have? What are the differences? How it is effecting the selection/decision of the client and application method?

A: The materials that are used during the application of thermal insulation proposed by KYK are EPS, carbon added platinum, and rockwool. The exterior wall thermal insulation system tools and equipments are mainly profiles; pvc corner profiles with/without mesh, aluminum corner profiles with/without mesh, fuga, drip, dilatation profiles and etc.

Q: How does the thickness of the thermal insulation material effect the thermal comfort and the economy of the user? Is there any relation with the increase of the flat numbers of the building and the thermal insulation materials?

A: Thickness of the insulation and the effect of the heat saving in relation with the thickness of the heat insulation is significanly showing that while the thickness of insulation increases in each of storey buildings, the savings are increasing as well. Using the insulation materials in thickness has a relation with the amount of savings that users can possibly have.

Q: What is cold bridge? How do you define it? At what locations of the building do this cold bridge can take place? Why? How do you prevent it?

A: A thermal bridge, additionally called a cold bridge, heat bridge, or thermal bypass, is a zone or component of an object which has higher thermal conductivity comparing to the surrounding materials, creating a path of least resistance for heat transfer. A cold bridge is an area in a building where a gap occurs in the insulation (for example: the roof/wall junction and the wall/floor junction). As these areas will be colder than the main areas there is a greater risk of condensation forming.

Q: Compare one-brick wall with and without thermal insulation. Draw sketches to explain your answer both in words and sketches.

A: Solid walls – built of brick, stone, concrete block, log or wood plank – do not have a cavity that can be insulated. The only option is to add insulation to the exterior or to the interior. Many solid walls, including double brick walls, have a small cavity, generally less than 25 mm (1 in.), which is a drainage plane that collects and drains water out of the wall. Never insulate these cavities or plug their drain holes.

Q: Compare reinforced concrete wall with the wall built with light-weight concrete units in terms of heat transfer. Provide their pictures.

A: The thermal properties of composite materials such as concrete are affected by the thermal properties of each essential material as well as the void space enclosed within the material. Factors affecting the thermal conductivity of concrete consist of “age, aggregate volume element, amount of cement, types of admixtures, fine aggregate fraction, temperature, and moisture status.” Moisture content, density, and temperature have been shown to influence the thermal conductivity of concrete most highly, alongside with aggregate volume fraction. Because it is typically included of aggregate for 60 to 70% (or more) by volume, the thermal properties of concrete are highly influenced by the thermal properties of the aggregates.

Q: How can heat be lost through the building? Are there differences in use of thermal insulation material on external walls according to the orientation of building?

A: Loss of heat in building occurs via the construction elements (columns and beams), heat bridges, air leakages on windows and doors and ventilation. The orientation of the building percentage given will be helpful for the interior unit capacity selection of the heating and cooling system.

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